Evaluation of two management strategies for stalk borer, Economic injury levels for management of stalk borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Injury profiles and yield responses of seedling corn attacked by stalk borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, Research Bulletin No. ME 1984. Therefore, Levine's (1983) calculations were used to validate pest management actions (Lasack and Pedigo 1986, Davis and Pedigo 1990) and are used in the IPM section (below).
Natural mortality of the lesser cornstalk borer . 1992). Tillage and destruction of weeds are recommended prior to planting because this helps to destroy larvae that may be present in the soil and might damage seedlings, the stage most susceptible to destruction. Figure 5. . The mature larvae are bluish green, but tend toward reddish brown with fairly distinct yellowish white stripes dorsally. This stripe remains through all stages and is a distinctive characteristic used to distinguish stalk borers from all other caterpillars that feed on corn in the Midwest. Mack et al. Figure 2.
WC Nearly all eggs are laid on dead vegetation inside curled leaves or between the leaf sheath and stem, or in cracks of stems (Decker 1931, Levine 1985). Plants that are attacked at earlier developmental stages tend to produce fewer and smaller ears than do plants attacked at later developmental stages (Davis and Pedigo 1991). Larvae mostly produce two kinds of injury: leaf feeding and stalk tunneling. Photograph by James L. Castner, University of Florida. As many as four larvae per corn stalk have been found in silking-stage corn. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae). JE Pupae are about 8 mm long and 2 mm wide. 1991).
LC Copyright 2022ISU Extension and Outreach Dead heart in corn caused by stalk borer. IC-478(3). In its larval stage it is called a borer because of the way it chews holes into the stalks of plants and bores intoand tunnels throughthem. Dead hearts symptoms are caused by the larva boring into the stalk at the soil level and tunneling upward. Peterson et al. Peak occurrence is usually during the first two weeks of September with 50% trap capture of flying adults during September 814 (Bailey et al. ; hemp dogbane, Apocynum cannabinum L.; giant ragweed; cocklebur, Xanthium spp. Isely D, Miner FD. 1982. Such conditions are optimal for mating and oviposition.
During mid to late June, the larvae grow to be too large for the grass stems and they move to larger plant stems in the vicinity. 12) can reduce crop damage from stalk borers. Decker (1931) suggests that mowing grassy areas adjacent to cornfields during the second week of August and then removing the grass as hay will render the location undesirable for oviposition. GJ The dates when larval movement to corn are likely to begin is 30 May (northern Kansas, central Missouri, and southern Illinois) to 20 June (northeastern South Dakota, southern Minnesota, and central Wisconsin). 1966.
On peanuts, this species mostly occurs in noneconomic densities, but sporadic outbreaks are associated with hot and dry climatic conditions (Smith and Barfield 1982). If planting a block refuge with a Bt corn hybrid, do not plant it adjacent to grassy field borders as this increases the risk of crop injury from stalk borers. Larvae rarely may occur in other crops such as soybean, Glycines max (L.) (Rice and Pedigo 1997), oat, Avena sativa L.; wheat, Triticum sativum Lamarck; and sunflower, Helianthus annnus L. (Decker 1931). EILs and an IPM approach for managing stalk borers in corn are presented. This entrance is usually seen in conjunction with a sandy, silken tub from the entrance to the soil below. 1985), but some adults fly as late as October 20 in Illinois (Levine 1983). The stalk borer, Papaipema nebris (Guene) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native North American insect that occurs from the Atlantic Coast to the western Great Plains, and from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico (Decker 1931).
Funderburk JE, Boucias DG, Herzog DC, Sprenkel RK, Lynch RE. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in a peanut agroecosystem. An examination of the stalks, however, should reveal stalk borers or their tunnels inside the plants. A single female can oviposit about 200 eggs (Capinera 2001), with a report of up to 420 eggs (Biddle et al. 1984). We do not have an effective control for borers that are inside of the stem. (US-EPA) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Vip3Aa20 insecticidal protein and the genetic material necessary for its production (via elements of vector pNOV1300) in event MIR162 maize (OECD unique identifier: SYN-IR1624)(006599) fact sheet. Parasitoids accounted for <5% of stalk borer mortality.
Younger plants are more susceptible to damage, therefore, yield losses caused by stalk borers decline if the plant is attacked later in development.
However, crop culture that uses conservation tillage (i.e., retention of crop residue at the soil surface) experiences less injury from lesser cornstalk borer feeding because the larvae feed freely on crop residue and other organic matter, sparing the young crop plants (All et al.
The stalk borer was first recorded as a crop pest of wheat in 1823.
In Georgia, Leuck (1966) reported that due to the semi-subterranean nature of lesser cornstalk borer, it fed on and damaged seedlings and mature soybean plants above and below the soil surface. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. The lesser cornstalk borer: a new important pest of young sugarcane, pp. First larval movement and 50% larval movement out of grass occurs at 1,110 FDD (600 CDD) and 1,650 FDD (900 CDD), respectively, base 41.2F/5.1C (Lasack and Pedigo 1986). The common stalk borer is a slender, purple and white striped caterpillar found tunneling inside the stems of a wide variety of plants. 250- 325. Soybean are planted at rates of 100,000 seeds or more per acre and stalk borers are unlikely to reduce the plant stand to levels that show a yield reduction. A complete life cycle usually requires 30 to 60 days. Unfortunately, this approach does not consider the potential size of the stalk borer population, so an insecticide may be sprayed on a population that would not be economically damaging. The borers may remain in the stem of one plant, or they may again become too large for the stem they are in and move to another host. Photograph by James F. Price, University of Florida. Larval populations are aggregated, and can be separated from soil by sieving or flotation (Mack et al. There is no single solution to effectively managing stalk borers in corn.
Lesser cornstalk borer, pp. The larvae tunnel into the stems of annual and perennial plants and they are sporadic, yet serious pests of corn (Zea mays L.), in the Midwestern United States. GC Controlling stalk borer damage in field corn.
We do not have an effective control for borers that are inside of the stem. Economic injury levels (expressed as a percentage of infested plants with stalk borers in whorl) for corn. Several species of lepidopteran larvae are controlled by transgenic corn. Environmental Entomology 13: 1319-1323. ME Levine (1986) later used higher minimum thresholds, accumulated after January 1, and recalculated the average first hatch and 50% hatch to occur at 297.7FDD/147.6CDD (base 47.3F/8.5C) and 309.6FDD/154.2CDD (base 48.0F/8.9C), respectively. The other injury, stalk tunneling, is much more severe. Larger third- and fourth-stage larvae were unaffected by the transgenic corn and there was no differences in the mortality between the transgenic and nontransgenic hybrids, but surviving larvae on transgenic Cry1Ab weighed less, which would lengthen the developmental time to pupation and increase their exposure to pathogens, predators, and parasitoids (Binning and Rice 2002). Figure 8. EILs (Table 1) have been calculated for corn in the 17 leaf stages as a percentage of injured or infested plants in the first two rows to help decide whether to apply an insecticide to the border rows. Head capsules are dark in color, and measure about 0.23, 0.30, 0.44, 0.63, 0.89, and 1.2 mm in width, respectively, for instars one through six. LP The larval stage causes damage when it feeds upon, and tunnels within, the stems of plants. Adult longevity under field conditions is estimated at about 10 days. In the later situation, the injury is usually limited to the first 48 rows of corn adjacent to the grassy area (Levine 1983, Davis and Pedigo 1990). This is known as flagging (Rubink and McCartney 1982) or dead heart (Fig. Smith Jr JW, Johnson SJ. Bessin (2004) reported that the growing point of the plant was killed, leading to dead hearts symptoms that are similar to the attack of wireworms. Stalk tunneling results in upper leaves being cut off within the center of the plant, which then wilt and die. Pedigo
Decker LP This species is also found in Mexico, Central America, and South America (Luginbill and Ainslie 1917). It is most commonly found inside the stalk of giant ragweed but is of some importance as a pest of tomatoes, corn, and other plants. In late-stage larvae, the darker colors fade and the larva assumes a dirty-white color (Fig. Riley CV. These eggs hatch very early in the spring and the larvae begin boring into the grasses. Pedigo Using fire to destroy eggs in grass and weeds in egg-laying sites (Fig.
. 1997). Environmental Entomology 14: 452-458.
It is a pest of several economically important crops. Mature larva of the lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller).
Photograph by Hardev Sandhu, University of Florida.
Parasitoids rarely cause more than 10% mortality. Targeting hatching eggs works best in fields that have a history of field-wide infestations. 1992. If you live outside of Iowa please do not submit a sample without contacting the Plant & Insect Diagnostic Clinic. 729 pp.
1985). 27-30. When 1,3001,400 FDD (700760 CCD) have accumulated, scout corn to verify that stalk borers are moving from the grass to corn by looking for larvae inside the whorls. They found that heavy rainfall during the egg-hatching period significantly reduced neonate stalk borer populations, but as the small larvae tunneled into grass stems, their survival increased as they were well protected from both adverse climatic conditions and predators. Pupae: At larval maturity, caterpillars construct pupal cells of sand and silk at the end of the tunnels. They used a 1,436 FDD (780 CDD), 39.9F (4.4C) base, beginning 1 March, to predict movement from weed hosts to corn and correlated the prediction with calendar dates. . Large stalk borer infestations often occur in corn adjacent to areas with large stemmed weeds, especially giant ragweed.
Davis and Pedigo (1990) compared the accuracy of the 41.2 or 48.0F threshold for predicting 50% egg hatch and found that both gave reasonable estimates of hatch as measured by occurrence of first instars in the field. Adult male lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller). The wingspan is 11.6 inch (2540 mm; Fig. Managing stalk borers in soybean is not practical. Pests living below ground. . Management of preharvest insects, pp. 2).
9) to the pod stages (Figs. 1984. BR ; wirestem muhly, Muhlenbergia frondosa (Poiret); woolly cupgrass; smartweed, Polygonum spp.
(. Smooth brome with dead heads caused by larvae tunneling into grass stems.
Therefore, predicting larval movement from weed hosts to corn hosts is crucial. Spatial distribution of lesser cornstalk borer eggs in peanuts. Plants can sometimes be saved by slicing open the stem and removing the borers by hand.
Lesser cornstalk borers seem to be adapted for hot, xeric conditions, and therefore tend to be more abundant and damaging following unusually warm, dry weather. Therefore, insecticides with residual activity should be timed to coincide either with egg hatch or with movement from grass to corn.
Capinera JL. The lesser cornstalk borer occurs widely in the western hemisphere and is known from much of the southern United States.
143, Product safety assessment (PSA): Herculex I Insect Protection. Larvae live in the soil, constructing tunnels from soil and excrement tightly woven together with silk.
Herbicides that kill the grasses during May will force the larvae to move from the dead grassy weeds to the corn. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Grass in terraces, ditches, fence lines, waterways, and weed patches are preferred egg-laying sites. Early stage larvae have a combination of cream and dark purple or brown stripes on the thorax and abdomen (Fig. Long-term management of field-wide infestations requires grass control so that eggs will not be laid across the field during late summer. The younger a plant is injured, the more likely it is to not produce a harvestable ear (Levine et al. The number of instars is highly variable, ranging from 7 to 16, but most larvae complete their development in 79 larval stages if they are feeding on a high quality host (Decker 1931). Meyer and Peterson (1998), however, used 30-year climatic normal data to predict probable dates for stalk borer larval movement in the Midwest. Photograph by John L. Capinera, University of Florida. The smaller corn stalk-borer. Normally the tunneling is restricted to the basal region of stalks, including the belowground portion, and girdling may occur. However, herbicides applied to weeds, especially those scattered throughout a field, can force stalk borers from their weedy host and into adjacent corn, thereby aggravating stalk borer damage (Rubink and McCartney 1982, Levine 1983) and possibly destroying a significant number of plants. Other parasitoids sometimes present include Bracon gelechiae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Geron aridus Painter (Diptera: Bombyliidae), and Invreia spp. Smith JW Jr, Barfield CS.
1984). PM Davis Once the plant reaches the 6-leaf stage, the plant's ability to tolerate stalk borer injury greatly increases.
Evaluation of corn inbred lines for resistance to stalk borer, Field and laboratory evaluations of transgenic, Integrated Crop Management, Iowa State University Extention, Ames, IA. Rubink Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), larva showing stem tunneling by larva.
Larvae are cannibalistic and small diameter hosts seldom contain more than one larva per plant, but large multi-branched hosts, such as giant ragweed, may contain up to 30 larvae (Decker 1931).
3). RKD ; lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L.; pigweed, Amaranthus spp. Smith Jr JW, Johnson SJ, Sams RL. LP In 1927, the U.S. Bureau of Entomology's Insect Pest Survey listed the stalk borer as one of the 10 most destructive insects. Contact information for each state's diagnostic laboratory forU.S. residents, Tiny Stalk Borers are Big Garden Headache, Corn Rootworm Beetles on Flowers in the Fall, Peachtree Borer and Lesser Peachtree Borer. Wilted plants should be considered as a source of additional borer problems and these should be removed and destroyed. 17: 51-57. Journal of Economic Entomology 86: 164-173. While more often observed in the southeastern United States, this pest species is sporadic in nature and distributed from Maine to southern California. Plants with dead heart fail to produce ears 2563% of the time, while plants that do produce ears have substantially smaller ears and grain reductions of 4989% (Bailey and Pedigo 1986). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, providedthe original work is properly cited. A Review of Information on the Lesser Cornstalk Borer. Early planted fields may escape some stalk borer damage, but this varies from year to year, depending on when the eggs begin to hatch. An IPM approach should use comprehensive pest technology that combines means to reduce the status of pests to tolerable levels while maintaining a quality environment (Pedigo and Rice 2008). Insecticides: Insecticides applied for suppression of lesser cornstalk borer are usually applied in a granular formulation in the seed furrow or in a band over the seed bed, using restricted pesticides according to label recommendations. 27 pp. House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae): Biology, Pest Status, Current Management Prospects, and Research Needs, The Biology, Ecology, and Management of the Hazelnut-Feeding Weevils (, Mungbean: A Preview of Disease Management Challenges for an Alternative U.S. Cash Crop, Arthropod and Disease Management in Boxwood Production, About Journal of Integrated Pest Management, About the Entomological Society of America, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010, www.dow.com/productsafety/finder/herc.htm, www.genuity.com/Traits/Corn/Genuity-SmartStax.aspx, www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/1997/4-7-1997/toastsborer.html, www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/2006/5-30/stalkborer.html, www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/biopesticides/ingredients/factsheets/factsheet_006599.html#usesites, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright 2022 Entomological Society of America. Adult pheromone trap catches and flush counts are correlated (Funderburk et al. Photograph by James L. Castner, University of Florida. ME (, Stalk borer ecology and pest management options in corn and soybeans, Iowa State University Extension, Ames, IA. Adult female lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller). When stalk borer larvae were fed transgenic Cry1Ab corn tissue for 72 hours, or leaf tissue was incorporated into a meridic diet, there was no affect on larval survival, pupal weight, or days to adult emergence, but less leaf injury was recorded on the transgenic hybrid compared with the nontransgenic hybrid (Pilcher et al. Journal of Entomological Science 26: 223-230. The hind wings of both sexes are transparent with a silvery tint. 1979). 17: 167-171. Cultural practices: Modified planting practices have long been used to minimize crop loss. Photo credit Adam Sisson. Gardner WA, All JN. Later, when 4th through 6th-stage larvae migrated in search of larger-diameter hosts, predators such as ants, ground beetles, and spiders were significant mortality factors. The third and fourth pairs of abdominal legs are cream-colored. Burning experiments in grass terraces during late March in Iowa resulted in average yield increases of 28% in five of six fields in corn rows adjacent to the terraces, presumably because of destruction of stalk borer eggs (M.E.R., unpublished data). Levine The best approach would be to integrate strategies that fit individual field situations and that consider risk of corn yield loss versus cost of control while reducing negative environmental impact. The larvae bore into the stalk base near the soil surface causing damage to vascular tissues that result in these "dead hearts" symptoms and also allow pathogens to enter into the plant (Smith and Ota 2002). Eggs: The eggs are oval, measuring about 0.6 mm in length and 0.4 mm in width. Adult and larval counts are often highly correlated, indicating that flush counts can be used to predict the abundance of larvae in subsequent weeks. DA Pilcher (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae); and larval stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae). However, when larvae were fed seedling transgenic corn plants and the feeding period was extended to 28 days, different results were obtained. Stalk borers do not migrate very far from grassy areas, so treat only the first four corn rows next to terraces, fence lines or waterways. Insecticide sprays or dusts used in the garden are not effective against this pest. Timing is critical for best performance.
Lasack The Iowa State UniversityPlant & Insect Diagnostic Clinic will identify your insect, provide information on what it eats, life cycle, and if it is a pest the best ways to manage them. At rest, the female moth is often charcoal-colored (Biddle et al.1992) with wings held straight back along the body, while the male moth is tan-colored with charcoal wing strips (Chapin 1999). All of these factors contribute to larval mortality, but they cannot be relied upon to prevent yield losses. Later, when these leaves emerge and unfold, large ragged holes will appear across the leaf blades (Fig. Using fire in grass to kill stalk borer eggs. Effects of temperature and adult age on the oviposition rate of. Leaf feeding does not reduce grain yields (Bailey and Pedigo 1986). Legume and grass crops are most often damaged. Thanks to Jeffrey Bradshaw for providing the adult stalk borer photograph. Levine Chemical control of the lesser cornstalk borer in grain sorghum. Clement Or apply the insecticide 710 days after application of a slow-acting herbicide. During the early instars, larvae are yellowish green, with reddish pigmentation dorsally, tending to form transverse bands. When first deposited, they are greenish, soon turning pinkish, and eventually reddish. LG Funderburk JE, Herzog DC, Mack TP, Lynch RE. RR RKD It occurs when larvae tunnel through the plant (Fig. This is especially true of the females, which are less distinctive than the males. Here we present an overview of stalk borer ecology and discuss IPM for this insect in corn.
Among the predators thought to be important mortality factors are a ground beetle, Plilophuga viridicolis LeConte (Coleoptera: Carabidae); big-eyed bugs, Geocoris spp. If the number of borer-days equals or exceeds 10, damage is likely. The larvae are rather indiscriminate feeders and have been collected from 176 plant species representing 44 families (Decker 1931). PM Larvae often outgrow the stem diameter of their first host, especially if it is a grass, and must search for a larger diameter host (Decker 1931). Rice 4).
Large, field-wide infestations are the result of adults laying eggs on grass throughout the field during late summer, then when corn is planted again into the grassy-problem field the following spring, stalk borer damage to corn is highly probable. Temperature requirements for development of the stalk borer, Annals of Entomological Society of America, Termination of diapause and postdiapause development in eggs of the stalk borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Effect of tillage practices and weed management on survival of stalk borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs and larvae, Effect of seedling injury by the stalk borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on regrowth and yield of corn, Predicting movement of stalk borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in corn, PearsonPrentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. . Tippins HH. DA A thin, cream-colored dorsal stripe extends from the behind the head to the anal plate, and a lateral cream-colored stripe extends from the fourth abdominal segment also to the anal plate.
McCartney 7) (Decker 1931, Bailey and Pedigo 1986) even though the growing point is not always injured (Davis and Pedigo 1991b). . Rice 1984). Duration of the egg stage is two to three days. Assumes $10/acre control costs and 70% kill of larvae with insecticide. A second approach is to target the insecticide to coincide with migration of the larvae from the grass to the adjacent corn. Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), damage.
They found that inbred line BS9(CB)C5 had less feeding than other lines and may be useful for future programs breeding resistance into seedling corn. Common stalk borer larva. The lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), was described by Zeller in 1848, but it was not considered of economic importance until 1881 (Riley 1882). Obrycki . Insect management for sweet corn. Figure 9. Delayed silking is the primary physiological basis for yield reductions in plants with dead heart (Bailey and Pedigo 1986). E Buntin Decker (1931) reported that stalk borer populations could be reduced by 8297% by burning fence lines from November to early spring. [Your choice of three detailed fact sheets below for additional information], Home and Garden IPM from Cooperative Extension, 4-H Camp & Learning Center at Bryant Pond, 4-H Camp & Learning Center at Greenland Point, 4-H Camp & Learning Centers at Tanglewood & Blueberry Cove, Insect Pests, Plant Diseases & Pesticide Safety, Affiliated Programs, Partners & Resources, Non-Discrimination Statement & Disability Resources, Register for Workshops, Classes, & Events.
They leave the tunnel to feed in the basal stalk area or just beneath the soil surface, returning and constructing new tunnels as they mature. Lasack et al. Contact information for each state's diagnostic laboratory forU.S. residents. Note wilting due to stalk feeding by larvae. The head is orange except for an oblique, lateral black stripe extending through the ocelli.
An overview of the lesser cornstalk borer management program at HARC-HSPA, 1986-2002. Females prefer to oviposit on narrow-leaved perennial grasses such as tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreber, giant foxtail, orchardgrass, Dactylis glomerata L., quackgrass, Elymus repens (L.), and winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., as opposed to wide-leaved annual grasses, like rye, Secale cereale L., or broad-leaved plants such as smooth pigweed, Amaranthus hybridus L., and giant ragweed (Levine 1985; Highland and Roberts 1987, 1989).
Cocoons measure about 16 mm in length and 6 mm in width. ME The following are possible options for fields with a confirmed history of stalk borer problems: Cornfields planted with a Bt hybrid expressing the lepidopteran-active protein Cry1Ab for European corn borer may attain sufficient suppression of stalk borers that no further management is necessary. The herbicide kills the grass, forcing the larvae out of the plant to search for another host and is then killed by the residual insecticide. Total larval development time varies widely, but normally averages about 20 days. Bailey Common stalk borer adult. There is one generation per year. Infested seedling plants may wilt and die, thereby remaining unnoticed. On rare occasions, field-wide stand losses have been reported in corn where grass or giant ragweed, Ambrosia trifida L., problems occur. Lesser cornstalk borer on peanut.
Note wilting due to stalk feeding by larvae. Figure 7. 10 and 11) (Rice and Pedigo 1997). However, eggs can be separated by flotation. If an insecticide is needed, spray between 1,4001,700 FDD (760930 CDD). Journal of Georgia Entomological Society. SH Plants that survive often grow tillers, are delayed in development, and do not produce normal-sized ears. Photo credit Adam Varenhorst. The most effective approach is a burndown herbicide-insecticide combination, either tank mixed or in a split application, rather than an insecticide used alone. Length of the egg stage ranges from 7.58.5 months with eggs hatching the following spring from April 19 to June 5 in Iowa (Decker 1931). Photograph by Hardev Sandhu, University of Florida.